Stanford Wilderness Medicine Research

Small E, Juul N, Pomeranz D, Burns P, Phillips C, Chefers M, Lipman GS. Predictive Capacity of Pulmonary Function Tests for Acute Mountain Sickness. High Altitude Medicine & Biology, published on-line February 18, 2021.

Lipman GS, Hew-Butler T, Philips C, Krabak B, Burns P. Prospective Observational Study of Weight-based Assessment of Sodium Supplements on Ultramarathon Performance (WASSUP). Sports Medicine Open. 2021;7(13).

Leroux E, Hoffman E, Kontaxis C, Lipman GS. Intensive Cryotherapy in the Emergency Department (ICED): A Randomized Controlled Trial. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, published on-line January 21, 2021. 

Lipman GS, Jurkiewicz C, Burnier A, Marvel J, Phillips C, Edmark C, Hawkins J, Navlyt A, Swenson E. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Lowest Effective Dose of Acetazolamide for Acute Mountain Sickness Prevention. American Journal of Medicine. 2020 Dec;133(12):e706-e715.

Kim DA, Lindquist BD, Shen SH, Wagner AM, Lipman GS. A Body Bag Can Save Your Life: A Novel Method of Cold Water Immersion for Heat Stroke Treatment. Journal of the American College of Emergency Medicine Open. 2020 Feb;1(1):49-52

Lipman GS, Burns P, Phillips C, Jensen J, Little CE, Jurkiewicz C, Jarrett B, Walker A, Mansfield N, Krabak B. Effect of Sodium Supplementation and Climate on Dysnatremia during Ultramarathon Running. Clinical Journal Sport Medicine, Published on-line February 25, 2020.

Bennett B, Hew-Butler T, Rosner M, Myers T, Lipman GS. Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for Treatment of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia: 2019 Update. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. Published on-line February 9, 2020.

Alschuler KN, Krabak BJ, Kratz AL, Pomeranz D, Burns P, Bautz J, Nordeen C, Irwin C, Jensen MP, Lipman GS. Pain Is Inevitable But Suffering Is Optional: Pain Coping Strategies Impact On Performance In Multi-Stage Ultramarathon Runners. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. Published on-line February 9, 2020.

Vanbaak K, Finigan R, Nally L, Barry C, Jurkiewicz C, Burnier A, Morteza K, Lipman GS. Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines to Diabetic Management. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. Dec;30(4S):S121-S140.

Lipman GS, Jurkiewicz C, Winstead-Derlega C, Navlyt A, Burns P, Walker A, Phillips C, Reilly A, Burnier A, Romero J, Warner K, Hackett P. Day of Ascent Dosing of Acetazolamide for Prevention of Acute Mountain Sickness. High Altitude Medicine & Biology. 2019 Sept;20(3):271-278.

Lipman GS, Gaudio FG, Eifling KP, Ellis MA, Otten EM, Grissom CK. Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Heat Illness: 2019 Update. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. Dec;30(4S):S33-S46.

Pomeranz D, Irwin C, Lipman GS. Large Volume Hypertonic Saline for Empiric Treatment of Severe Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia. Current Sports Medicine Reports.2019 May;18(5):163-165.

Alsup, C, Lipman GS, Pomeranz D, Huang RW, Burns P, Phillips C, Rainey J, Saraswathula A, Baumeister P, Lai L, Lobo V. Interstitial Pulmonary Edema by Lung Ultrasound on Ascent to High Altitude and Slight Association with Acute Mountain Sickness: A Prospective Observational Study. High Altitude Medicine and Biology .Published on-line:May 7, 2019.

Little CE, Lipman GS, Migliaccio D, Young DS, Krabak BJ. Accuracy of Estimated Creatinine in Multistage Ultramarathon Runners. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. Published online: March 11, 2019

Spano SJ, Seymer JA, Crane DH, Auerbach PS. Impact of a Half Dome Cable Permitting Process on Search and Rescue Activity, Hiker Mortality Rates, and Operational Costs Above Little Yosemite Valley. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine.Published online: March 4, 2019

Phillips D, Bowman J, Zafren K. Successful Field Rewarming of a Patient with Apparent Moderate Hypothermia Using a Hypothermia Wrap and a Chemical Heat Blanket. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. Published online: February 26, 2019

Burns P, Lipman GS, Warner K, Phillips C, Jurkiewicz C, Sanders L, deSoto M, Hackett P. Altitude Sickness Prevention with Ibuprofen Relative to Acetazolamide for Treatment Efficacy. American Journal of Medicine. 2019 Feb;132(2):247-251.

Phillips C, Lipman GS, Gugelmann H, Doering K, Lung D. Snakebites and Climate Change in California, 1997 to 2017. Clinical Toxicology. September 5, 2018. 

Alschuler KN, Kratz AL, Lipman GS, Krabak BJ, Pomeranz D, Burns P,  Bautz J, Nordeen C, Irwin C, Jensen, MP. How Variability in Pain and Pain Coping Relates to Pain Interference During Multi-Stage Ultramarathons. PAIN: September 7, 2018.

Krabak BJ, Lipman GS, Waite BL, Rundell SD. Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia, Hypernatremia, and Hydration Status in Multi-Stage Ultramarathons. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Dec 2017;28(4).

Lipman GS, Shea K, Christensen M, Phillips C, Burns P, Higbee R, Koskenoja V, Eifling K, Krabak BJ. Ibuprofen versus placebo effect on acute kidney injury in ultramarathons: a randomised controlled trial. Emergency Medical Journal. July 5, 2017.

Lipman GS, Pomeranz D, Burns P, Phillips C, Cheffers M, Evans K, Jurkiewicz C, Juul N, Hackett P. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Budesonide Versus Acetazolamide for the Prevention of Acute Mountain Sickness. America Journal of Medicine. June 28, 2017.

Schimelpfenig T, Johnson DE, Lipman GS, McEvoy DH, Bennett BL. Evidence-Based Review of the Wilderness First Aid Practices. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education and Leadership. 2017;9(2):216-238.

Christensen M, Lipman GS, Grahn DA, Shea KM, Einhorn J, Heller HC. A Novel Cooling Method and Comparison of Active Rewarming of Mildly Hypothermic Subjects.Wilderness & Environmental Medicine.June, 2017;28(2):108-115. 

Wetschler M, Radler D, Christensen M, Rundell S, Lipman GS. Biochemistry in Endeavor Adventure Racers (BEARS). Cureus. Feb 11,2017;9(2):e1024.

Ladd ER, Shea KM, Pirrotta E, Wang NE, Lipman GS. Hydration status as a predictor of high altitude mountaineering performance. Cureus. Dec 7, 2016;8(12):e918.

Lipman GS, Sharp LJ, Christensen M, Phillips C, DiTullio A, Dalton A, Ng P, Shangkuan J, Shea K, Krabak BJ. Paper Tape Prevents Foot Blisters: A Randomized Prevention Trial Assessing Paper Tape in Endurance Distances II (Pre-TAPED II). Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, In the Press April 11, 2016.

Schmidt AC, Sempsrott JR, Hawkins SC, Arastu AS,  Cushing TA, Auerbach PS. Wilderness  Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Drowning.  Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, In the Press April 6, 2016. 

Matthieu P. DeClerck, MD; Yvonne Bailey, MD; David Craig, MD; Michelle Lin, BA; Lauren J. Auerbach, BS; Olivia Linney, BS; Doug E. Morrison, MS; Wyatt Patry, BS; Paul S Auerbach, MD, MS. Efficacy of Topical Treatments for Chrysaora chinensis Species: A Human Model in Comparison with an In Vitro Model. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 2017, Jan 27.

Shea KM, Ladd ER, Lipman GS, Bagley P, Pirrotta E, Vongsachang H, Wang NE, Auerbach PS. 6-Minute Walk Test as a Predictor of Summit Success on Denali. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 2015, Dec 28.

Kanaan NC, Ray J, Stewart M, Russell KW, Fuller M, Bush SP, Cravat EM, Cardwell MD, Norris RL, Weinstein SA. Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Pitviper Envenomations in the United States and Canada. Wilderness Environmental Medicine. 2015 Dec;26(4):472-87.

Lipman GS, Krabak BJ, Rundell SD, Shea K, Badowski N, Little C. Acute Kidney Injury Incidence and Prevalence during a Multi-Stage Ultramarathon. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, In the Press, 2015, Oct 28

Gordon L, Paal P, Ellerton JA, Burger H, Peek GJ, Zafren K. Delayed and intermittent CPR for severe accidental hypothermia. Resuscitation. 2015 May;90:46-9.

Kanaan NC, Lipman GS, Constance BB, Holck PS, Preuss JF, Williams SR. Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Increase on Ascent to High Altitude: Correlation With Acute Mountain Sickness. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. 2015; 34:1677-1682.

DeClerck MP, Lipman GS, Cao V; Wieland M; Troxel T, Grahn DA, Heller CH. A Chemical Heat Pack Based Method For Consistent Heating of Intravenous Fluids. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, In the press, June 18, 2015.

Lipman GS, Kanaan NC, Philips C, Pomeranz D, et al. Study Looking at End Expiratory Pressure for Altitude Illness Decrease (SLEEP-AID). High Altitude Medicine and Biology. 2015 Jun;16(2):154-61

John Lissoway MD, Grant S Lipman MD, Dennis Grahn PhD, Vihn Cao, Michael Shaheen MD, Samson Phan PhD, Eric A Weiss MD, Craig Heller PhD. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Novel Application of Chemical Cold Packs for Treatment of Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 2015 Jun;26(2):173-9.

Zafren K, Giesbrecht GG, Danzl DF, Brugger H, Sagalyn EB, Walpoth B, Weiss EA, Auerbach PS, McIntosh SE, Namethy M, McDevitt M, Dow J, Schoene RB, Rodway GW, Hackett PH, Bennett BL, Grissom CK. Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 2014 Dec;25(4):425-45.

Kauffman E, Lipman GS, Sharp JL, Krabak BJ. Two Cases of Paradoxical Hypothermia in a Sahara Desert Multi-Stage Ultramarathon (Paradoxical Hypothermia in Runners). Emergency Care Journal, 2014; 10(4279):80-82.

Lipman GS, Lewis E, Waite BL, Ellis M, Lissoway JB, Chan GK, Krabak BJ. A Prospective Randomized Prevention Trial Assessing Paper tape in Endurance Distances (Pre-TAPED). Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. In the Press, October 30, 2014.

Hoffman MD1, Pasternak A, Rogers IR, Khodaee M, Hill JC, Townes DA, Scheer BV, Krabak BJ, Basset P, Lipman GS. Medical Services at Ultra-Endurance Foot Races in Remote Environments: Medical Issues and Consensus Guidelines. Sports Med. 2014 Apr 19. 

Karle FJ 3rd, Auerbach PS. Migraine headache confounding the diagnosis of acute mountain sickness. Wilderness Environ Med. 2014 Mar;25(1):60-8. 

Auerbach LJ, Declerk BK, Garrison Fathman C, Gurtner GC, Auerbach PS. Poly-l-Arginine Topical Lotion Tested in a Mouse Model for Frostbite Injury. Wilderness Environ Med. 2014 Mar 12

Lipman GS1, Krabak BJ, Waite BL, Logan SB, Menon A, Chan GK. A prospective cohort study of acute kidney injury in multi-stage ultramarathon runners: the Biochemistry in Endurance Runner Study (BIERS). Res Sports Med. 2014;22(2):185-92. 

Brugger, H., Durrer, B., Elsensohn, F., Paal, P., Strapazzon, G., Winterberger, E., Zafren, K., Boyd, J. Resuscitation of avalanche victims: Evidence-based guidelines of the international commission for mountain emergency medicine (ICAR MEDCOM) Intended for physicians and other advanced life support personnel Resuscitation. 2013; 84 (5): 539-546.

Lipman GS, Eifling KP, Ellis MA, Gaudio FG, Otten EM, Grissom CK. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness. Wilderness Environ Med. 2013 Dec;24(4):351-61.

Declerck MP1, Atterton LM, Seibert T, Cushing TA. A review of emergency medical services events in US national parks from 2007 to 2011. Wilderness Environ Med. 2013 Sep;24(3):195-202. 

Lippert, S. C., Nagdev, A., Stone, M. B., Herring, A., Norris, R. Pain control in disaster settings: a role for ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2013; 61 (6): 690-696.

Auerbach LJ, Galvez MG, De Clerck BK, Glotzbach J, Wehner MR, Chang EI, Gurtner GC, Auerbach PS. A novel mouse model for frostbite injury. Wilderness Environ Med. 2013 Jun;24(2):94-104. 

Lipman GS, Kanaan NC, Holck PS, Constance BB, Gertsch JH; PAINS Group. Ibuprofen prevents altitude illness: a randomized controlled trial for prevention of altitude illness with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2012 Jun;59(6):484-90. 

Davis, C., Engeln, A., Johnson, E., McIntosh, S. E., Zafren, K., Islas, A. A., McStay, C., Smith, W. Cushing, T. Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Lightning Injuries. Wilderness Environ Med. 2012; 23 (3): 260-269.

Constance, B. B., Auerbach, P. S., Johe, D. H. Prehospital Medical Care and the National Ski Patrol: How Does Outdoor Emergency Care Compare to Traditional EMS Training? Wilderness Environ Med. 2012; 23 (2): 177-189.

McIntosh SE, Hamonko M, Freer L, Grissom CK, Auerbach PS, Rodway GW, Cochran A, Giesbrecht G, McDevitt M, Imray CH, Johnson E, Dow J, Hackett PH. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. Wilderness Environ Med. 2011 Jun;22(2):156-66

Ken Zafren, Joanne Feldman, Robert J. Becker, Sarah R. Williams, Eric A Weiss, Tom Deloughery. D-dimer is Not Elevated in Asymptomatic High Altitude Climbers after Descent to 5340m: The Mount Everest Deep Vein Thrombosis Study (Ev-DVT).
 High Altitude Medicine & Biology. Autumn 2011, Volume 12(3): 223-227. 

Luks AM, McIntosh SE, Grissom CK, Auerbach PS, Rodway GW, Schoene RB, Zafren K, Hackett PH. Wilderness Medical Society consensus guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute altitude illness. Wilderness Environ Med. 2010 Jun;21(2):146-55

Gertsch JH, Lipman GS, Holck PS, Merritt A, Mulcahy A, Fisher RS, Basnyat B, Allison E, Hanzelka K, Hazan A, Meyers Z, Odegaard J, Pook B, Thompson M, Slomovic B, Wahlberg H, Wilshaw V, Weiss EA, Zafren K. Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Comparison of Acetazolamide Versus Ibuprofen for Prophylaxis Against High Altitude 
Headache: The Headache Evaluation at Altitude Trial (HEAT). Wilderness Environ Med. Sept, 2010, Volume 21(3): 236-243.

Sumann, G., Paal, P., Mair, P., Ellerton, J., Dahlberg, T., Zen-Ruffinen, G., Zafren, K., Brugger, H. Fluid management in traumatic shock: a practical approach for mountain rescue. Official recommendations of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). High Altitude Medicine & Biology. 2009; 10 (1): 71-75.

Norris, R. L., Pfalzgraf, R. R., Laing, G.Death following coral snake bite in the United States - First documented case (with ELISA confirmation of envenomation) in over 40 years Toxicon. 2009; 53 (6): 693-697.

Haddad, V., de Souza, R. A., Auerbach, P. S. Marine catfish sting causing fatal heart perforation in a fisherman Wilderness Environ Med. 2008; 19 (2): 114-118.

Simpson, I. D., Tanwar, P. D., Andrade, C., Kochar, D. K., Norris, R. L. The Ebbinghaus retention curve: training does not increase the ability to apply pressure immobilisation in simulated snake bite - implications for snake bite first aid in the developing world Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygeine. 2008; 102 (5): 451-459.

Basnyat B1, Hargrove J, Holck PS, Srivastav S, Alekh K, Ghimire LV, Pandey K, Griffiths A, Shankar R, Kaul K, Paudyal A, Stasiuk D, Basnyat R, Davis C, Southard A, Robinson C, Shandley T, Johnson DW, Zafren K, Williams S, Weiss EA, Farrar JJ, Swenson ER. Acetazolamide Fails to Decrease Pulmonary Artery Pressure at High Altitude in Partially Acclimatized Humans. High Altitude Medicine & Biology. Sep. 19, 2008. Volume: 9 (3).

Lin, B., Norris, R. L., Auerbach, P. S. A Case of Elevated Liver Function Tests After Crown-of-Thorns (Acanthaster planci) Envenomation. Wilderness Environ Med. 2008; 19 (4): 275-279.

Boyd, J. J., Agazzi, G., Svajda, D., Morgan, A. J., Ferrandis, S., Norris, R. L.Venomous snakebite in mountainous terrain: Prevention and management Wilderness Environ Med. 2007; 18 (3): 190-202.

Robert L Norris, James A Wilkerson, Joanne Feldman. Syncope, Massive Aspiration, and Sudden Death Following Rattlesnake Bite. Wilderness Environ Med. 18(3): 206-208. 2007

Simpson, I. D., Norris, R. L. Snake antivenom product guidelines in India: "The devil is in the details" Wilderness Environ Med. 2007; 18 (3): 163-168

Kochar, D. K., Tanwar, P. D., Norris, R. L., Sabir, M., Nayak, K. C., Agrawal, T. D., Purohit, V. P., Kochar, A., Simpson, I. D. Rediscovery of severe saw-scaled viper (Echis sochureki) envenoming in the thar desert region of Rajasthan, India WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE
2007; 18 (2): 75-85

Simpson, I. D., Norris, R. L. Snakes of medical importance in India: Is the concept of the "Big 4" still relevant and useful? Wilderness Environ Med. 2007; 18 (1): 2-9

Zafren, K., Durrer, B., Herry, J. P., Brugger, H. Lightning injuries: prevention and on-site treatment in mountains and remote areas - Official guidelines of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine and the Medical Commission of the International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation (ICAR and UIAA MEDCOM) Resuscitation. 2005; 65 (3): 369-372.

Norris, R. L. First report of a bite by the mottled rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus lepidus) Toxicon. 2005; 46 (4): 414-417

Norris, R. L., Ngo, J., Nolan, K., Hooker, G. Physicians and lay people are unable to apply pressure immobilization properly in a simulated snakebite scenario Wilderness Environ Med. 2005; 16 (1): 16-21